Timezone Transformation Using Location Data & PostGIS

Rekha Khandhadia

4 min read

Imagine your system captures event data from all over the world but the data all comes in UTC time giving no information about the local timing of an event. How can we quickly convert between the UTC timestamp and local time zone using GPS location? We can quickly solve this problem using PostgreSQL and PostGIS.

This example assumes you have a Postgres database running with PostGIS. If you’re new to PostGIS, see PostGIS for Newbies.

Steps we will follow

  1. Timezone Shape file Overview: For World Timezone shape file, I have been following a really nice project by Evan Siroky, Timezone Boundary Builder. We’ll download the timezones-with-oceans.shapefile.zip from this location.
  2. Load Shape file: Using shp2pgsql, convert shape file to sql to create timezones_with_ocean table.
  3. PostgreSQL internal view pg_timezone_names: Understand pg_timezone_names view.
  4. Events table and insert sample data: Create events table and insert sample data.
  5. Transformation Query: Transform event UTC timestamp to event local timestamp.

Overview of data relationship

Below is an overview of the data relationship and join conditions we will be using.


Timezone Shape file Overview

A “shape file” commonly refers to a collection of files with .shp, .shx, .dbf, and other extensions on a common prefix name, which in our case is combined-shapefile-with-oceans.*. **combined-shapefile-with-oceans contains polygons with the boundaries of the world's timezones. With this data we can start our process.

Load Shape file

We will be using shp2pgsql to generate sql file from shape file to create public.timezones_with_ocean and inserts data in a table. The table contains fields gid, tzid and geometry.

Export the Host, user, password variables

export PGHOST=p.<pgcluster name>.db.postgresbridge.com
export PGUSER=<DBUser>
export PGPASSWORD=<dbPassword>

Create sql file from shape file

shp2pgsql -s 4326  "combined-shapefile.shp" public.timezones_with_oceans   > timezone_shape.sql

Create public.timezones_with_ocean and load timestamp data

psql -d timestamp -f timezone_shape.sql

Query a bit of sample data

SELECT tzid, ST_AsText(geom), geom FROM public.timezone_with_oceans limit 10;

Visualize Sample data

sample data

Using PgAdmin highlight geom column and click on eye icon visualize the geometry on map showing below.

Geometry in pgAdmin

PostgreSQL internal view pg_timezone_names

PostgreSQL provides a view of pg_timezone_names with a list of time zone names recognized by SET TIMEZONE. By default, PostgreSQL also provides their associated abbreviations, UTC offsets, and daylight-savings status, which our clients need to know.

pg_timezone_names view columns description

Column Type Description
name text Time zone name
abbrev text Time zone abbreviation
utc_offset interval Offset from UTC (positive means east of Greenwich)
is_dst bool True if currently observing daylight savings

pg_timezone sample data

Sample data

Events table and insert sample data

Now that we have the timezone shape file loaded, we can create an event table, load sample transaction data, and apply a timestamp conversion transformation query.

    event_id bigint NOT NULL,
    eventdatetime timestamp without time zone NOT NULL,
	event_type varchar(25) not null,
    latitude double precision NOT NULL,
    longitude double precision NOT NULL,
    CONSTRAINT events_pkey PRIMARY KEY (event_id)

INSERT INTO public.events(
	event_id, eventdatetime, event_type, latitude, longitude)
	VALUES (10086492,'2021-08-17 23:17:05','Walking',34.894089,-86.51148),
(50939,'2021-08-19 10:27:12','Hiking',34.894087,-86.511484),
(10086521,'2021-09-09 19:32:37','Swiming',34.642584,-86.761291),
(22465493,'2021-09-30 11:43:34','Swiming',33.611151,-86.799522),
(22465542,'2021-11-26 22:40:44.197','Swiming',34.64259,-86.761452),
(22465494,'2021-09-30 11:43:34','Hiking',33.611151,-86.799522),
(10087348,'2021-07-01 13:42:15','Swiming',25.956098,-97.535303),
(22466679,'2021-09-01 12:25:06','Hiking',25.956112,-97.535304),
(22466685,'2021-09-02 13:41:07','Swiming',25.956102,-97.535305),
(10088223,'2021-11-29 13:19:53','Hiking',25.956097,-97.535303),
(22246192,'2021-06-16 22:21:23','Walking',37.083726,-113.577984),
(9844188,'2021-06-23 20:18:43','Swiming',37.1067,-113.561401),
(22246294,'2021-06-25 21:50:06','Walking',37.118719,-113.598038),
(22246390,'2021-07-01 18:15:54','Hiking',37.109579,-113.562923),
(9844332,'2021-07-04 19:11:13','Walking',37.251538,-113.614708),
(9845242,'2021-11-04 13:25:40.425','Swiming',37.251542,-113.614699),
(84843,'2021-11-23 14:33:20','Swiming',37.251541,-113.614698),
(22247674,'2021-12-21 14:31:15','Swiming',37.251545,-113.614691),
(22246714,'2021-08-09 14:46:51','Swiming',37.109597,-113.562912),
(9845116,'2021-10-18 14:59:51','Swiming',37.082777,-113.554991);

Sample Event Data event data

Transformation Query

Now we can convert the UTC timestamp to the local time for an event. Using PostGIS function St_Intersects, we can find the timezone_with_oceans.geom polygon in which an event point lies. This gives the name of the timezone where the event occurred. To create our transformation query:

  • First we create the location geometry using Longitude and Latitude from the events table.

  • Using PostGIS function St_Intersects, we will find common points between timezone_with_oceans.geom and an event’s location geometry giving us information on where the event occurred.

  • Join pg_timezone_names to timezone_with_oceans on name and tzid respectively, to retrieve abbrev, utc_offset, and is_dst fields from pg_timezone_names.

  • Using PostgreSQL AT TIME ZONE operator and pg_timezone_name, we convert UTC event timestamp to local event timestamp completing the process, e.g.

    timestamp '2021-07-05 00:59:12' at time zone 'America/Denver' → 2021-07-04 18:59:12+00’

Transformation Query SQL:

SELECT event_id, latitude, longitude, abbrev,
       utc_offset,is_dst, eventdatetime,
       ((eventdatetime::timestamp WITH TIME ZONE AT TIME ZONE abbrev)::timestamp WITH TIME ZONE)
           AS eventdatetime_local
FROM public.events
JOIN timezone_with_oceans ON ST_Intersects(ST_Point(longitude, latitude, 4326) , geom)
JOIN pg_timezone_names ON tzid = name;

local timezone data

Closing Thoughts

PostgreSQL and PostGIS allow you to easily and dynamically solve timezone transformation. I hope this blog was helpful, and we at Crunchy Data wish you happy learning.

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Rekha Khandhadia

January 6, 2023 More by this author